Bladder cancer: the signs, symptoms, and treatments

Blood or blood clots in the urine

Hematuria requires prompt medical attention to determine its underlying cause, which may include infections, cancer, or blood clotting disorders.


Frequent urination

Frequent urination can indicate various conditions, including infections, diabetes, and medication side effects, requiring medical attention.

Painful urination

Dysuria or painful urination can indicate medical conditions like UTIs, STIs, and kidney stones and requires prompt medical attention for diagnosis and treatment.

Back pain

Back pain can have various causes such as muscle strain, injury, arthritis, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis, and treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the pain.

Cigarette smoke

Cigarette smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke are significant risk factors for bladder cancer, with more than a doubled risk associated with smoking.


Radiation exposure

Radiation exposure for cancer treatment can increase the risk of developing other types of cancer, including bladder cancer.

Exposure to certain chemicals

Certain chemicals used in industries such as dyes, rubber, leather, paint, textiles, and hairdressing may increase the risk of developing cancer, according to studies.

Chronic catheter use

People who require long-term catheterization of the bladder are at higher risk for developing squamous cell carcinoma, a type of bladder cancer, due to chronic irritation


Bladder cancer treatment options include surgery such as TURBT or radical cystectomy, and may be followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.



Intravesical therapy delivers cancer-killing drugs directly to the bladder via a tube inserted into the urethra, targeting cancer cells without damaging healthy tissue.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy combined with TURBT and chemotherapy can be an alternative to surgery for bladder cancer treatment, depending on tumor factors.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy uses drugs to target genetic changes in cancer cells, such as FGFR gene inhibitors which block cell growth signals.

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